塞缪尔·谢尔曼英镑

塞缪尔·谢尔曼的照片

1842-1852

葡京app下载的第一任总统, 27岁的塞缪尔·斯特林·谢尔曼, 他是佛蒙特州人,到南方来改善他虚弱的身体. 他在塔斯卡卢萨开办了一所预备学校, 在阿拉巴马大学学习古代语言,并担任UA的图书管理员. His reputation attracted the attention of those searching for a president for newly-founded Howard College in Marion.

Sherman accepted the presidency of Howard College in spite of the UA president's warning that the Baptists wouldn't be able to sustain their new school. 这是一个伟大的信念的行动, because when Howard College opened in 1842 it consisted of a single wooden building 和 had no students, 没有教师和最低限度的资源. 的 curriculum was so limited that when the local newspaper prepared to announce the opening of "Howard University," Sherman went to the printing office 和 changed the copy to read "Howard English 和 Classical School"--a more modest 和 accurate description of the college.

到第一年运营结束时,霍华德学院有31名学生. 那一年的大部分时间, 谢尔曼是学院唯一的教授, 和 the combined revenue from tuition was not enough even to pay his room 和 board. 据说,为了给学校建图书馆,谢尔曼不得不在马里恩推着手推车挨家挨户地讨书.

在谢尔曼担任总统的十年里,霍华德大学的情况逐渐好转, 1852年,他觉得是时候继续前进了. 内战结束后,他再次拜访了马里恩, 和 was celebrated for the kindness he showed in visiting Confederate prisoners of war in Federal prisons, 以及他对霍华德学院的贡献.

亨利Talbird

亨利Talbird照片

1853-1863

南卡罗来纳州人亨利·塔尔伯德在加入霍华德学院之前曾在塔斯卡卢萨和蒙哥马利担任浸礼会牧师. He taught theology at the college for only six months before succeeding Howard president 塞缪尔·谢尔曼英镑 in 1852. 塔尔伯德在那之后的十年里相对繁荣, 尽管在1854年,一场毁灭性的大火摧毁了学院的大部分物质资源. Talbird’s service to Howard effectively ended in 1862, 当时他被阿拉巴马州第41步兵团授予上校军衔.

杰贝兹·拉马尔·门罗·库里

杰贝兹咖喱照片

1865-1868

虽然他才当了三年总统, 杰贝兹·拉马尔·门罗·库里 is among the most distinguished 和 widely-recognized of Samford’s early leaders. 这位格鲁吉亚本地人在塔拉迪加从事法律工作, 阿拉巴马州, 和 served for many years in the state legislature before his election to the U.S. 国会. 当阿拉巴马州脱离联邦时,他从国会辞职, 库里加入了联盟军的阿拉巴马第五团. 战后不久, 库里被选为阿拉巴马浸信会的主席,一个月后成为霍华德学院的校长. 库里以坚定支持政教分离和推动全民免费公共教育而闻名. 在后来的几年里,库里拒绝了担任美国国家体育总局局长的任命.S. 他被任命为美国教育部的一员.S. 驻西班牙大使.

爱德华·奎因桑顿

1868-1869

内战结束后,霍华德学院努力争取长期领导地位, running through several presidents in quick succession. 霍华德大学教授爱德华·奎恩·桑顿就是其中之一, 任期由1868年7月至1868-1869届会期结束.

直到1894年,桑顿才被列为霍华德学院的第四任校长, but at some point in Samford's history he simply disappeared from collective memory. 历史学家米切尔·贝内特·加勒特在他的 霍华德学院的60年(1842-1902,以及詹姆斯·F. Sulzby used Garrett's information in his two-volume 《走向萨姆福德大学的历史,但桑顿在其他方面却被忽视了. 几十年来,, 他甚至被排除在萨姆福德官方的全权总统名单之外(与那些临时总统相反)。.

Before serving Howard College as a professor of chemistry 和 modern languages, 桑顿 studied at the University of 阿拉巴马州 和 at various European universities. 他是众多教授之一, administrators 和 students 谁 left Howard to serve in the Confederate States Army, rising from the rank of lieutenant in the 39th 阿拉巴马州 Infantry regiment to become an assistant adjutant general. 在他升任总统前几年,他回到了霍华德大学.

在选择桑顿作为备受瞩目的J. L. M. 咖喱, 学院的受托人向州浸信会宣布, “这个国家前所未有的财政问题已经严重地影响到了学院." By July 1868 the trustees had ab和oned hope of building the college's endowment 和 asked of 桑顿, 除了管理学院的财产, 只说他让学院自给自足. 他们甚至在这个目标上后退了一步, 最终同意了桑顿的还价,只获得100名学生中的60名,以使学校能够自给自足, with the trustees taking responsibility for the remainder.

尽管桑顿建立了严格的英语新入学考试,1868年至1869年期间,牛津大学还是招收了115名学生, 拉丁, 希腊和代数. 虽然明显成功, 桑顿发现他更喜欢课堂而不是总统,于是在会议结束时辞职,专注于在霍华德大学和另一头的贾德森学院(Judson College)授课. His brief tenure seems to be the cause of 桑顿's ultimate disappearance from the official roll of Samford presidents.

塞缪尔·R. 弗里曼

塞缪尔·弗里曼照片

1869-1871

像E. Q. 桑顿,塞缪尔·R. 弗里曼 served as president of Howard College for only a brief time (1869-1871) as the college struggled to find stable leadership after the Civil War. 弗里曼, 前受奖人及受托人, was recommended for the presidency by a fellow trustee 谁 had just declined 弗里曼's offer of the position. 尽管对形势的转变感到惊讶,弗里曼还是接受了总统职位.

的 trustee 谁 nominated 弗里曼 for the presidency described the Tennessee native as "majestic in structure, 高耸在智力, 充满了圣灵的力量." 弗里曼 also suffered throughout his life from a debilitating eye disease but found some comfort in the home of the widow with 谁m he boarded while a student at Howard. 弗里曼娶了这位寡妇, 成为了该州的主要部长, 阿拉巴马浸信会教育委员会主席, 在说服杰贝兹·拉马尔·门罗·库里接受1865年重新开放的霍华德学院的校长职位方面发挥了关键作用. 弗里曼在跟随库里的脚步一年前才加入霍华德的董事会.

弗里曼很高兴有机会为学院服务, 和 dedicated his attention to increasing enrollment 和 re-opening Howard's 的ological Department, which had ceased operation along with most other college functions during the war. 他在后面的努力中成功了, but a one-year increase in enrollment failed to improve the college's financial picture because so many students made their way through Howard on scholarships, 欠条或不规则的学费支付. 在弗里曼执政的第二年,入学人数降到了之前的水平, 让学校负债累累.

到1871年,弗里曼已经看够了大学校长的生活. 决定,比如E. Q. 桑顿, that his true calling lay in his original profession, 他辞去总统职位,转而在杰斐逊任全职牧师, 德州. 一年后他就去世了, just as his alma mater entered a period of dramatic 和 sometimes controversial transformation under the long-term leadership it had sought for a decade.

詹姆斯·T. Murfee

詹姆斯Murfee照片

1871-1887

詹姆斯·T. 默菲作为霍华德学院(1871-1887)院长的任期在很多方面都是杰出的, 尤其是因为默菲并没有离开学校——学校离开了他. At 16 years, his service also was of exceptional length. 事实上,默菲作为萨姆福德任期最长的总统的记录一直持续到20世纪50年代. 他的政府仍然是该大学历史上第四长的.

Murfee, 他是土生土长的弗吉尼亚人,毕业于弗吉尼亚军事学院,在内战前成为阿拉巴马大学的数学教授,并曾担任阿拉巴马第41团中校和阿拉巴马大学学员团的指挥官. 战后重建时期的政治让默菲觉得自己在联合航空不受欢迎, 因此,他把学术严谨和军纪严明的名声带到了斗争中, 1871年负债累累的霍华德学院.

默菲似乎把马里恩的人都迷住了, 十多年来,他第一次为学院提供了稳定的领导. 他创造了以小班制和个人关注和实践为基础的新的学术结构,从而振兴了学术项目, 并在学院内创建了一个商学院和一个军事艺术与科学学院.

他还实行军事纪律. 从1871年开始,默菲要求学生在公共场合穿灰色军装. 到那个年代末,军事训练已经成为许多学生的日常例行公事,这所大学也开始像一所军事学院.

到19世纪80年代初,对财政支持的重新呼吁使学院摆脱了债务,甚至允许增加新的财产, 但是,由于校董对在战前出售的奖学金证书作废,导致了一场针对该学院长达八年的违约诉讼. 这场诉讼于1883年结束,原告得到了判决,法院下令在县法院的台阶上拍卖学院的财产,以履行由此产生的财政义务. In 1884, 霍华德大学的两位受托人在拍卖会上以1美元的价格买下了这所大学,并将这处房产赠送给阿拉巴马浸信会.

拥有全部所有权,没有剩余债务, 《葡京app下载》认为,它也许终于能够为该学院建立一笔坚实的捐款. 但一些霍华德在县外的支持者担心,新的投资会浪费在日渐衰落的马里昂学院上,而且学院将处于默菲和当地受托人的控制之下, 他们发现自己与公约的分歧越来越大.

与《葡京app下载》关于部长学生和宗教教师地位的持续争论在1886年结束,默菲坚持霍华德大学不会免除部长学生的军事和居住要求的胜利, 也不允许公约规定教师的任命. 该公约的全体部长委员会辞职以示抗议, 这加剧了学院管理者和所有者之间日益紧张的关系.

同样是在1886年, 当霍华德大学的学生包围并殴打林肯师范学校的一名黑人学生时,马里恩的种族紧张局势加剧, 这名学生用刀砍伤了一些学生,随后一群白人公民威胁要烧毁这所内战结束时为教育新获得自由的奴隶而建立的学校.

Lincoln was already pondering whether or not to stay in Marion or move to Montgomery or Birmingham, 和霍华德的冲突实际上把林肯和霍华德的命运联系在了一起. Lincoln supporters closely followed the growing debate among white Baptists over whether or not to move Howard, 和霍华德的受托人, largely opposing the relocation of their own school, circulated a petition calling for the removal of Lincoln Normal School from Marion.

在一封告诉 马里昂标准 报纸的编辑 阿拉巴马州的浸信会 解释了他们为什么拒绝发表一篇文章,把霍华德和林肯之间的麻烦作为调动霍华德的充分理由. “就在那个时候,马里昂的市民和全州的人, 代表浸信会, 卫理公会和长老会都在和立法机关交涉,希望把那所黑人师范学校移走,”他们写道, 人们严重怀疑他们是否能成功, 葡京app下载的判断是, 应该写这样一篇文章...出现[关于搬迁霍华德学院]...大会的许多成员将拒绝投票赞成废除黑人大学, 和 thus fasten on a long established white school community an institution [Lincoln] that was a positive menace to virtuous womanhood 和 helpless children."

So, race played a part in the debate about removing Howard College from its birthplace, 但学院也陷入了农村和城市文化、新旧经济和社会结构之间的紧张关系. 默菲发现自己正处于这场风暴的中心.

As Murfee fought with the Convention over the fate of the ministerial students, the Convention considered relocating the college 和 all parties warily eyed Lincoln Normal School, 伯明翰的支持者们正在寻找新的机构来服务他们15岁的社区. 1886年,大会在伯明翰召开,并任命了一个委员会,与伯明翰的土地公司进行谈判,并考虑城市为将霍华德学院搬迁到该地区而给予的慷慨奖励. Following rich promises of l和 和 financial support, 霍华德学院于1887年迁至伯明翰东湖社区.

马里昂标准 对霍华德被解职表示愤慨. “马里恩浸信会犯了一件非常不公正的事, 是谁长久以来为维持这所大学而忠心耿耿地工作, when the Baptists of North America were doing nothing,编辑们写道. “如果在原来的地方建立另一所学校, 霍华德学院的移除不会对马里恩造成任何伤害.事实上,在霍华德所在的地方还建立了另一所学校. 大会将马里恩的房产归还给了在拍卖会上买下它的两位受托人, 和 asked them to use the campus for the good of Marion. 詹姆斯Murfee, the only member of Howard's faculty 谁 declined to follow the college to Birmingham, leased the college property for a year 和 established Marion Military Institute. 研究所发展壮大,默菲最终通过信托从其所有者那里获得了这处房产.

In spite of his own misgivings about the removal of Howard, 默菲在因此次行动而分裂的浸信会派别之间扮演了调解人的角色. 与痛苦和伤害的感情所表达的相反 马里昂标准默菲的这封信发表在《葡京会官方app下载》上 阿拉巴马州的浸信会 1887年8月5日,对霍华德大学及其校友表达了良好的祝愿:

给我的老学生和朋友们

的se halls so dear to us all have been turned over to me for educational purposes; 和 I shall continue in them the same system of discipline 和 methods of instruction which I introduced in 1871.

I shall aim to train other young men as you were trained, 让他们喜欢你的角色, 流行和有用性. 你的善行将永世长存, 你们的优秀榜样为你们的继任者树立了榜样.

的 hearts of the good people of Marion will ever be with you; 和 we hope you may often be inclined to revisit the old college home--the scenes amid which you developed those elements of character which have been the foundation of your success 和 happiness. You will find here open doors 和 a warm welcome--in the town 和 at the school.

只要有机会, I shall rejoice to assist in extending your influence 和 promoting your welfare.

有没有你的朋友

J. T. Murfee

至少在短期内,默菲和其他反对霍华德搬迁的人得到了证明. Howard College arrived in Birmingham to find that the city's generous promises of support had evaporated.

本杰明·富兰克林莱利

本杰明·莱利的照片

1888-1893

本杰明·富兰克林·莱利(本杰明·富兰克林莱利)任职于萨姆福德历史上众多不稳定时期之一. 1887年,霍华德学院迁往伯明翰的东湖社区,留下了校长和几个受托人, not to mention the good will of some 阿拉巴马州的浸信会s. 最糟糕的是, 受托人发现新校区的一个重要部分没有包括在东湖土地公司的捐款中, 所以他们必须立即购买额外的地产. 也, 尽管土地公司有着宏伟的梦想, 除了鲁哈马浸信会教堂外,新校园周围的农村地区几乎没有, 在20世纪50年代,这里是学院的精神家园, 和 the old school building of the defunct Ruhama Academy.

把霍华德学院带到伯明翰的经济泡沫破灭了,学校发现自己再次陷入严重的财政困境. Visions of a rich endowment 和 gr和 new facilities faded as the trustees realized the college's two temporary buildings would have to serve longer than expected. 一个受托人, 支持搬迁的人, 宣布, “嗯, 如果我知道葡京app下载没有建筑的话, 我就不该投票赞成撤资."

历史学家米切尔·贝内特·加勒特生动地描绘了东湖校园早期的景象.

At the college, the scene was anything but inviting. 在一片苍松丛生的原野上,两幢草草盖成的木房相距甚远. 周围的灌木丛未被清除, 一年多前为了给建筑腾出地方而被砍倒的树还躺在地上. 的 remnants of the library were scattered 和 torn over the floor of an outhouse; pictures 和 broken furniture were piled in the corners of the limited hallways; the furniture of all the departments was old 和 rickety, 床上用品低劣而破旧.

霍华德的受托人 had the unenviable task of persuading someone to preside over that uninspiring scene. 三名候选人在B. F. 莱利 agreed to lead the college in September 1888.

莱利, the son of a Pineville 农民, was Samford's first native Alabamian president. 厄斯金学院的毕业生, 南方浸信会神学院和克罗泽神学院都是著名的牧师, 的编辑 阿拉巴马州的浸信会 newspaper 和 author of many books on 阿拉巴马州 history. 在接受总统职位后, he acted quickly to stabilize 和 exp和 the college, 翻新旧的鲁哈马学院建筑, 购买奶牛,种植花园,供应校园食堂. He emphasized the moral as well as the academic 和 martial education offered by the college but, 不足为奇的是, seems to have focused most of his attention on staving-off financial catastrophe.

By 1889 college officials had grown so tired of Birmingham's failure to provide all it had promised that they openly investigated ab和oning East Lake. Howard's financial outlook was so grim during this period that one financial agent resigned 和 his replacement remarked, "的re are 75 men in this city 谁 say they will give, 但他们都想成为最后一个, 和 how to make the 谁le 75 last is a mathematical problematical problem I have been unable to solve, 经过日复一日的思考."

尽管时局艰难, 这所学院加紧建造一座砖砌的多用途建筑物. 新大楼, 于1891年完成,后来被称为“老Main”," was the architectural centerpiece of the new campus. 不久之后,又有了新的宿舍和其他改进, but Howard's rural setting remained less than impressive. J. J. 1891年,芬克莱陪儿子上了大学, 当两人步行接近校园时,这位父亲问道, “我的男孩, 有多少远? 葡京app下载不是在这里吗?" "Yes, Papa," his son replied, "this is the place.芬克利亚看了看他面前缠绕的松树和灌木丛,说, 但我不知道, 我的孩子, 你在这片树林里扎营."

1892年,一场全国性的经济萧条减少了霍华德大学的招生人数,莱利自费走遍全州招收学生. 不幸的是, 他招募的许多人都需要额外的时间来支付学费, 迫使学校借今年的资金. 莱利 noted midway through the 1892-93 session that although the college had not succumbed to despair, "there has been an appreciation of an ever-increasing weight of responsibility, the appreciation of a burden growing heavier 和 heavier, 和一个, 就本案的性质而言, is growing still more heavy as the session advances."

莱利 held out hope that the people of Birmingham would help the college in its time of greatest need, 尤其是他计算出霍华德至少捐了60美元,自从学院进驻东湖以来,我为这座城市的发展贡献了5万美元. 但 by early 1893 a fundraising campaign in the city had netted only $500 of the $2,000美元需要继续经营这所大学. “过去五年里,我曾想方设法帮助学校度过‘艰难’时期,但现在我的办法已经用尽了,”莱利哀叹.

莱利自己似乎也因为财务问题精疲力尽了. He proposed hiring a full-time field agent to represent the college in securing both students 和 endowment funds. 交替, 他说, the college could call on Baptist women in the state to raise money to build tenant houses on the campus. 他认为后一个项目可以提供租金和一批潜在的学生,并增加校园财产的价值,利用浸信会女性的巨大影响力. 的 受托人 did eventually follow 莱利's advice about the full-time field agent, 但那时莱丽已经开始了新的生活. 他在1892-93年任期结束时辞职,以接受乔治亚大学英国文学教授的职位.

In spite of the financial frustrations of this period 和 thanks to 莱利's extensive recruiting efforts, 1893年的班级是该学院历史上规模最大的. 霍华德的下一任校长也将创造历史,但只增加了5名学生.

A. W. McGaha

A. McGaha照片

1893-1896

B. F. 莱利, 在他担任霍华德学院院长的短暂岁月里, 设法让学校保持开放,并提供学生. A published letter of the period heaped praise on 莱利 和 set overly optimistic expectations for his successor. "It seemed to have been necessary from unavoidable environments 和 the decree of a benignant Providence," B. H. 克伦普顿这样描述莱利, “他应该指挥这艘船,计划航行, 直到他年轻, 对称而辉煌的后继者, A.W. McGaha D.D., one of the gr和est sons of his honored Alma Mater, 就像明亮的星星, 在即将离去的夜晚醒来, 预示着一天的到来."

阿瑟·沃特金斯McGaha, 马歇尔郡人的儿子, 阿拉巴马州, 农民, 霍华德学院的第一任校友校长是谁. 在1881年获得霍华德大学学位后, 他就读于南方浸信会神学院, 在霍华德学院搬迁到教堂附近不久,他就担任了两所教堂的牧师,并接受了领导鲁哈马浸信会的召唤. 这对霍华德和鲁哈马来说都是极其重要的时刻, 这些机构将他们的财富联系在一起. 的 church provided a spiritual home for the college as well as a deep well of leadership from which to draw staff, 教师和学生. 同样的, Howard College brought to East Lake scholars 谁 served Ruhama Baptist Church as well as they served the college.

1893年6月上任后,麦克加哈承担了他的朋友B. F. 莱利在全国范围内的经济危机中招募了足够的学生来维持学校的运作. McGaha失败了,但这所大学在那年秋天如期开学,尽管进一步陷入债务.

学院的财务状况如此严峻,以至于董事会公开谴责自己未能改善现状, 甚至建议让阿拉巴马浸信会取代整个董事会. 董事会留了下来, 按照莱利的建议行事, 大会和霍华德校友, hired a full-time vice-president/financial agent to travel the state raising funds 和 recruiting students. 的 agent's success allowed Howard to make needed building repairs 和 improvements while the students, 工作主动, also made great improvements to the campus grounds.

By the spring of 1894 Howard was physically much improved. 它的财政健康是另一回事, 尽管新的金融代理人已经获得了新的支持承诺. 的 year's decreased enrollment, indicative of a dangerous downward trend, was of special concern. 这个问题可能在霍华德第一次尝试男女同校的过程中起到了一定作用, 由McGaha.

男女同校教育已经在重塑阿拉巴马州其他大学的文化. 一些阿拉巴马人反对这一趋势,但McGaha和他的支持者坚持并获胜. College records of the period suggest no great disruption resulting from the admission of two East Lake women, 安妮·贾奇和尤金妮娅·韦瑟利, 1894-95学年. 事实上, some male students 谁 looked forward to a soothing feminine influence on the toughest members of the faculty lamented the lack of change in their professors. 这些女生被证明是优秀的学生, 和 they were followed by three more female students in the 1895-96 school year. 不幸的是, 这几位女性的加入不足以帮助学院摆脱不断增长的债务.

学年结束的时候, the college had defaulted on its mortgage payments 和 for the second time in a little more than a decade faced the humiliation of a forced public auction of the campus. 1896年6月的董事年会, 距离预定的拍卖只有几周时间, McGaha指出,该学院缺乏支付员工工资的资金,并提出了一个激进的建议, 如果临时, 解决方案. 他告诉受托人说:“现在学校已经付不起薪水了。. 他补充说:“该机构比任何教授都更容易放弃总统。. 他提出了辞呈,董事会立即任命了A教授. D. 史密斯 "chairman of the faculty 和 manager of the college."

就像霍华德总统塞缪尔·R. 弗里曼,麦格哈回到全职的事工. 和弗里曼一样,他最终在德克萨斯州定居下来. 作为韦科第一浸礼会教堂的牧师,他领导着西南地区最大的教会. 但是,和弗里曼一样,McGaha在离开大学后不久就去世了. Upon his death in 1901 he was recalled with great respect by his predecessor, B. F. 莱利. McGaha, 他写了, "possessed a combination of qualities rarely found in a man because of his boldness 和 tenderness, 坦率和同情, 勇气和温柔——所有这一切都被调动起来,并在需要的时候表现出来——这些使他能够接触到比一般人更广泛的人群."

Coeducation at Howard faltered after McGaha's departure, 但十多年后,另一位牧师/总统帮助实现了这个大胆的愿景. 但 what of the financial catastrophe threatening Howard College at the time of McGaha's resignation? 而不是在危机时刻让学校失去领导, McGaha的决定可能帮助拯救了霍华德. 他的继任者, though understood to be merely a caretaker president, arranged for a financial rescue almost as dramatic 和 improbable as that of 1884.

A. D. 史密斯

A. 史密斯的照片

1896-1897

作为霍华德学院的数学教授和长期的商务主管, 艾伯特·杜兰特·史密斯(Albert Durant 史密斯)在1896年夏天成为校长时,一定敏锐地意识到学校的处境有多糟糕. 的 school's finances had driven away the previous two presidents 和 the end of the college seemed to be in sight. 霍华德大学的受托人任命史密斯为“学院的教职员主席和经理”,不到两周后,学院的财产将被取消抵押品赎回权,并被抵押所有者公开拍卖.

史密斯, 格鲁吉亚人, 自1881年来到马里昂校区以来,他在霍华德学院担任过多种职务. 除了担任数学教授和商业代理人之外, 他是一位著名的纪律严明者,曾在J. T. Murfee. 的 latter experience served 史密斯 well as he took up the challenge to save Howard, make it self-sustaining 和 free it of crippling debt.

首先也是最重要的, 史密斯说服他的朋友, 伯明翰银行家伯哈德·斯坦纳, 以个人名义担保霍华德大学的大部分债务,前提是学校的债权人同意延长还款期限. 债权人同意推迟取消抵押品赎回权, but Howard was left with the old problem of how to raise the funds to pay its debts. 学院再次求助于阿拉巴马浸信会.

在霍华德大学受托人的要求下,三名伯明翰浸信会牧师B. D. 灰色,P. T. 黑尔和W. A. Hobson took months-long leaves of absence from their churches to raise the money needed to save Howard. 16美元,000年他们长大——半数现金, half-pledge--was sufficient to make up missed payments 和 prevent foreclosure.

当牧师们开始他们的工作时, 霍华德解决了一场土地纠纷,这场纠纷自该校进入东湖以来就一直困扰着它. 的 East Lake L和 Company finally agreed to donate the lots adjacent to the campus that the trustees had understood to be part of the incentive for relocating the college.

随着校园的发展, 史密斯 continued 和 enlarged the improvement projects begun by his predecessor, A. W. McGaha, adding new sidewalks 和 renovating buildings. 的 college still lacked necessary facilities, however. Citing the lack of appropriate facilities for women, 史密斯 discontinued the experiment in coeducation that had given Howard its first female graduate, 安妮法官, in 1896. 其他入学的女生, only one somehow continued her studies after the announced end of the experiment. Eugenia Weatherly graduated in 1898 with the first full, four-year Howard 学位 awarded to a woman. 她将是近20年来最后一位女毕业生.

男女同校教育的暂时结束,与史密斯把几乎军事化的纪律应用到大学的日常生活相吻合. 这 included the creation of a student "officer of the day" 和 the strict regulation of time 和 tasks. 显著, 学生们每周六上午只被允许在伯明翰附近逗留4个小时. 这所大学最大的卖点之一, 似乎, was that it was removed from the notorious "demoralizing agencies" of the young city. 据一位观察者说,“每个男孩都直接从教堂去工作。. 的re is nothing but business through the 谁le day. 一切都有条不紊地进行着."

史密斯's administration sounds harsh to modern ears, but 似乎 to have inspired confidence 和 investment. A Howard College Day collection in the state's Baptist Churches in early 1897 further reduced the college's debt 和 gave hope that Howard could soon be debt-free.

在春季会议结束时,在仅仅一年的主席任期内,a. D. 史密斯带领霍华德走向了十年来从未有过的稳定. 但, 就像他的前任一样, 他经验丰富,辞去了总统职位,转而从商. 这是霍华德十年来第四次寻求新的领导.

弗兰克·米. 屋顶

弗兰克屋顶的照片

1897-1902

总统. D. 史密斯在离开霍华德学院时,拥有了几十年来最坚实的财务基础. 他的继任者是出生于肯塔基州的教育家弗兰克. 屋顶, magnified that success many times over 和 served longer than any president since Howard relocated to Birmingham.

的 relatively young new president (only 40 years old when he accepted the presidency in 1897) apparently took a special interest in physical education. 他创造了新的带热水的学生浴室,并创建了一个体育馆 伯明翰新闻 被认为是“阿拉巴马州所有大学中组织得最好的体育馆”." 这 attention to nurturing the bodies as well as the minds of students quickly became a point of pride at the college.

的 tradition of Samford basketball began on 屋顶's watch, 虽然一开始对游戏规则有些困惑.

“每个人都有自己的篮子, 这些信息是谁自愿提供的, 毫无疑问, 比这个新游戏更熟悉摘棉花吗,”报道 霍华德学院的一员 1900年,这项运动传入东湖. 根据 学院的学生一名富有远见的学生建议,人们可能真的要花钱观看这项新运动. 霍华德在明年初组建了自己的第一支篮球队,这是海湾沿岸各州的第一支大学篮球队. In the first intercollegiate game for both teams, Howard beat Auburn University 12-7. Howard created official baseball 和 football teams soon after the establishment of the basketball team.

屋顶也鼓励扩大学术项目, 成为了一名心理学和教育学教授, adding botany 和 extending offerings in psychology, 法国和德国. 英语是另一个课程的强项,一位观察家认为“古代语言的课程是南方最好的。."

鲁夫任期内的其他重要事件包括霍华德第一个正式校友会的成立(1899年)和, in 1902, repeal of the college's 26-year prohibition of student fraternal organizations.

“屋顶下”的政府霍华德甚至设法实现了它最难以实现的目标之一. Since glimpsing financial independence at the end of A. D. 史密斯的总统, the trustees had held out hope that the college could be entirely free of debt within a few more years. 霍华德在1899年达到了这个目标, thanks largely to the generosity of Baptist supporters throughout the state 和 to Howard's faculty, 多年来,谁资助了所有的建筑维修和改进.

霍华德在弗兰克·M. 屋顶 was remarkable considering the grave danger Howard faced only a year before his appointment to the presidency. 但他拒绝了董事会的邀请,在1902年之后继续留在办公室. 受托人报告说,鲁夫拒绝了,理由是“薪水与办公室要求的艰巨职责不相符。.“屋顶开始了一份销售房地产和保险的新职业. 霍华德的受托人, 他们一致认为鲁夫的接替者是第一人选(浸信会牧师L. O. 道森)在大学的竞争对手中找到了下一任校长.

Andrew P. 蒙塔古

安德鲁·蒙塔古的照片

1902-1912

著名的阿拉巴马浸信会领袖L. O. 1902年弗兰克·鲁夫离开后,道森拒绝了霍华德担任总统的邀请, 弗曼大学校长安德鲁·菲利普·蒙塔古也是如此, 最初. 但是前总统A. D. 史密斯向蒙太古施压,终于说服他接受霍华德的提议.

蒙塔古, 原生维吉尼亚州的, 那个时候,他是一位受人尊敬的翻译葡京app下载吗, 编辑和出版西塞罗和普林尼的书信. 他也是一个冠军筹款人, 和 preferred to leave to Howard's faculty much of the 政策making 和 daily operation of the college so he could travel the state on behalf of the college. 这 he did enthusiastically 和 with tremendous success.

蒙塔古似乎有一种不可思议的能力,不仅能预见新的大型项目, 但也要尽快找到资金来完成它们. 当他意识到需要一个新的图书馆和一个容纳图书馆的建筑时, 他只是出去筹集所需的资金. 考虑到筹集75美元的目标,霍华德大学的捐赠金额为5000英镑(相当于新建图书馆的七栋建筑大小), 他比最后期限提前七个月找到了这笔钱.

蒙塔古's success was due in part to the statewide enthusiasm for Howard nurtured by his immediate predecessors. 尤其值得一提的是,蒙塔古在该州的浸信会妇女中找到了一个强大的筹款盟友. 霍华德大学合作社, founded by prominent Baptist women in the Birmingham area, 为霍华德的关键进球做出了贡献, 包括图书馆和捐赠基金, 新宿舍和课程扩展.

Although state Baptists can take credit for much of Howard's prosperity during 蒙塔古's administration, the president's contemporaries recognized that he was a uniquely energetic leader. 当时的一位浸信会领袖回忆说,为了资助建造新宿舍, Renfroe大厅, 蒙塔古"真的把钱花在了这个地区, 在伯明翰和周围城镇的街道上漫步, 他几乎走进自己的坟墓.事实上,霍华德的“无敌总统”是 伯明翰新闻 一次打电话给他, 旅行超过11次,000 miles in 阿拉巴马州 in a single year at one point, 筹集的资金和学生人数都创下了历史新高.

蒙塔古's great professional success was tempered with personal tragedy near the end of the 1905-1906 school year, 当他的妻子, 可能基督教蒙塔古, 死于癌症. 据说,在他为霍华德做的所有工作中,她都是他的灵感和助手, 所以在她死后两周, 霍华德的受托人 voted to give her name to the newly completed library building. 一年后,蒙太古娶了一位伍德隆本地人(艾玛·弗洛伦斯·伍德饰).

蒙塔古延续了霍华德最近对锻炼的重视,将其作为全面教育的一部分. “去打棒球吧, 和网球, 和其他清洁, 男子气概的运动,他给霍华德大学的学生们提建议, 他们似乎遵循了这个建议. 新的足球运动吸引了人们极大的兴趣和热情. Howard formed its first official football team in the fall of 1902 和 played its first intercollegiate football game (a win) against Marion Military Institute, 取代了霍华德在马里恩的位置.

不久,熟悉的大学运动员装备就出现了. In 1904, Howard's faculty required student athletes to meet a minimum st和ard of 80 percent in each course of study (or 85 percent if they wished to join more than one team). 1906年,霍华德在学院主楼后面增加了一个运动场. Howard first offered full 运动 scholarships in 1907.

霍华德的学员团在大学里继续保持着光荣的地位, 和1904年圣. Louis World's Fair imported a contingent of Howard cadets to perform military drill exhibitions at the fair. 巧合的是, 伯明翰博览会上的另一位代表——雕塑家朱塞佩·莫雷蒂的火神雕像, 古罗马的火神——如今它离萨姆福德霍姆伍德校区只有几英里远.

从大量的违纪案件和严格的校园规则来看, Howard students seem to have been increasingly inclined to venture into Birmingham, 在那个年代,这里的酒吧和妓院臭名昭著. 那些不幸的学生在城里喝酒被逮到,被连续几个月的“校园逮捕”, 甚至永久.

Howard junior Albert Lee 史密斯 made the best of the official anxiety over the students' city excursions, proposing that he be allowed to operate the first Howard college bookstore beneath the stairs of Renfroe大厅, 这样一来,学生们就不需要到伯明翰去买学习用品了. 史密斯, 军校受人信任的军官, 承接各种货物订单, 他自己在伯明翰买的,然后在校园里卖掉赚钱. Howard officials knew a good idea when they saw one, but had the good manners not to take over 史密斯's operation until after he graduated.

霍华德在这段时间的相对繁荣, 其体育繁荣, the 1902 repeal of the ban on student fraternal organizations 和 the subsequent blossoming of fraternities 和 clubs inspired a new student publication, 不要对别人说 (“葡京app下载之间”). 这份年度出版物是霍华德大学学生生活的丰富而前所未有的记录.

So great were Baptist hopes for Howard's future during 蒙塔古's time that at the 1906 meeting of the 阿拉巴马州的浸信会 Convention future Howard president T. V. 尼尔建议学院的受托人制定一个20年计划,以创建一所综合性的“1000万美元大学”,被称为伯明翰大学, 以霍华德学院为核心. 尼尔的愿景很受欢迎,但过于乐观,而且不合时宜.

1908年经济萧条后,霍华德的财政状况再次紧张起来. In 1910, 他发现霍华德的金库空了,还欠了一大笔债, the faculty reminded 蒙塔古 that their already meager salaries had often been overdue in recent years. 现金流问题, 他们说, 是否对他们的信用产生了负面影响, 外之意, 大学的声誉.

1909年的一项向重考学生收取学费的政策有两个目的,一是增加霍华德的收入,二是鼓励学生第一次考试就通过. 1910年,教员们提出了更为严肃的建议,以缓解财政压力, 包括收回所有未偿还的学生债务,要求学生入学后立即支付学费.

教员们还要求蒙塔古将一份关于学院资金和不断增加的债务的报告交给受托人和州浸信会. 听到报告后, the trustees emphasized that the president 和 faculty should adjust their work to "the limitation of our income,因此,蒙塔古大幅削减了教师预算. 的养老, 另一方面, 超过80美元,000 和 蒙塔古 remained optimistic enough about Howard's future to propose construction of a new 体育馆.

尽管蒙塔古不知疲倦地在霍华德学院的发展方面具有前瞻性, he was very much a traditionalist 和 critic of what he viewed as the secularization of education. 1909年在鲁哈马浸信会教堂的布道中, 蒙塔古 excoriated the faculty of other colleges 谁, 他说, 蔑视传统, 批评国家政府, disdained religion 和 either revised the Bible "to suit latter-day scholarship" or discarded it altogether. Two years later he declared that "no professor has the right to force his infidel beliefs on a student, 如果我能从这个[霍华德]学院的老师那里学到东西, 谁是异教徒, 我会立即召开会议,要求解雇他.尽管有如此刺耳的信念, 蒙塔古 led Howard into partnership with the University of 阿拉巴马州 to create the 阿拉巴马州 Association of Colleges, which promoted improvement of 阿拉巴马州's schools according to national st和ards.

在一个. P. 蒙塔古, 霍华德学院享有其历史上最大的成功, but a decade in one place was enough for the president. 蒙塔古 resigned his office at the end of the 1911-1912 school year 和 departed to lead Columbia College in Florida. 霍华德的下一任总统任期只有蒙塔古的一半, 但他立即, 从根本上和永久性地改变了大学的文化.

詹姆斯米. Shelburne

詹姆斯Shelburne照片

1912-1918

在詹姆斯米. Shelburne made significant contributions to the welfare 和 status of Howard College, 但他们的成就都比不上舍伯恩在现代萨姆福德大学的成就. Samford's music, education 和 journalism programs owe their creation to Shelburne. 葡京app下载的女学生, 现在谁的人数明显超过男性, 要感谢舍伯恩建立了男女同校的学校吗.

Shelburne, a Kentucky native with 学位s from Georgetown College 和 Southern Baptist 的ological Seminary, was introduced to Howard College via Ruhama Baptist Church, 他的第一个牧师团. 20世纪初,他在霍华德社区担任牧师和教授,但最终回到乔治敦获得D.D. 学位. When Howard College again called on his services in 1912, 他在布里斯托尔领导一个教堂, 维吉尼亚州.

Shelburne eased into the presidency (和 out of it, coincidentally) over a period of half a year. 霍华德的受托人 elected him in the summer of 1912 but he didn't begin his service until January 1913.

舍伯恩通过鲁哈马与阿拉巴马浸信会文化有密切联系, 霍华德,通过他的妻子, 玛莎。华盛顿美国东岸, 谁se parents were highly regarded 阿拉巴马州的浸信会s. 当时他46岁,比他的前任小13岁. 的se factors may help explain how he was able to begin his presidency in as energetic 和 bold a fashion as he did.

谢尔伯恩很快结束了霍华德的军事教育计划, 这是霍华德30多年来的传统, on the grounds that it was declining in popularity 和 interfered with the college's growing 运动s program. 更重要的是, he arranged for a revolution in the form of the ten young women 谁 enrolled as Howard students on September 11, 1913. From that day forward, Howard College was coeducational. 不幸的是, official records from Shelburne's era are all but silent on the return of coeducation. 当总统决定女性应该有机会接受霍华德大学的教育时,也许是为他的三个女儿着想.

不管他的个人动机是什么,谢尔伯恩在一封致美国大学的公开信中并没有提到男女同校 阿拉巴马州的浸信会 那年秋天大学开学后不久. 霍华德的受托人, 在他们1913年11月向阿拉巴马浸信会提交的报告中, 对这个变化只做了简短的说明.

他们写道:“该学院现在招收年轻女性学生。. "Ten of these young women have matriculated 和 are proving themselves to be most satisfactory students."

一首匿名学生的诗 不要对别人说 recorded a certain amount of foreseeable tension in the sudden cultural change.

曾经有一个叫吉米的总统,他个子不高也不瘦,
他满头白发.
这位总统认为霍华德必须是男女同校的
这个想法葡京app下载承认很喜欢.
但 what is bothering us is this prez raises a fuss
当女学生和男生混在一起太多的时候.
但是,为了公正起见,葡京app下载认为葡京app下载必须这样做
因为女学生们很少吵闹.

舍伯恩在霍华德学院创造了许多令人印象深刻的“第一”, 和 more than a few of these benefited the women students.

In 1915, Howard became the first college 在南方 Atlantic region to offer journalism courses. 第二年,新闻系被授予系级地位,在这个项目中,许多妇女获得了甚至该地区大多数男子也得不到的专业教育. 的 journalism program created Howard's student newspaper, 深红色的将近一个世纪后,这本书仍在出版.

舍伯恩设立了女性学院院长的职位,以支持女学生和教学. In 1915 he appointed to that position Nannie Hiden, 谁, 在接受一位女学生记者的采访时, 谴责官方性别歧视的不公正,并预测即使在保守的南方,最终也会赢得选举权.

仅1916年一年, Lula Mehaffey成为霍华德大学自1898年以来第一位女毕业生, 霍华德举办了第一次男女同校派对, 和 the Howard women formed the college's first sorority (的ta Xi) 和 its first women's basketball team. 第二年, 学院成立75周年, 霍华德学院迎来了第一位女性毕业典礼演讲者.

Shelburne also established Howard's departments of music 和 education 和 the first student employment office.

由于经济和文化冲突,霍华德与伯明翰市的关系有时会变得紧张, 但舍伯恩却促进了与伯明翰的接触, 不仅仅是通过浸信会教堂, 但也通过其他宗教, 文化经济机构.

尽管与学生们就城市的腐败影响有过争执, Howard's leaders welcomed the extension to East Lake of Birmingham's trolley service. 从1913年3月开始, 伯明翰每隔10分钟召唤一次, but discipline problems actually seem to have declined. In 1915, 决心创建一个音乐系, Shelburne added to the faculty professional music educators from the city's Southern School of Musical Art. 他拜访了一位著名的城市乐队指挥,创建并指导霍华德学院的一支乐队. 舍伯恩还增加了伯明翰伊曼纽尔-艾尔神庙的拉比, 谁 later served on the college's fundraising committees (it has been said that in fundraising Shelburne promoted the cause of education above the cause of denomination).

舍伯恩还带领霍华德加入伯明翰商会, 注意的是,, “霍华德希望积极参与伯明翰的建设, 葡京app下载希望与城市的市政和工业活动更紧密地联系在一起."

1914年以后,欧洲战争使学院的“建设”有些困难, but the greater problems for Howard arrived after the U.S. 1917年春天参战.

秋季入学人数下降了20%,因为男生开始服兵役. 的 war ultimately claimed Howard's president as well. 1917年秋,谢尔本要求, 并被授予, a leave of absence to enter uniformed service 和 supervise educational programs at Camp Wheeler in Macon, 乔治亚州. 学院院长J. C. 谢尔本不在时,道森管理霍华德.

穿着制服的总统和霍华德的男学生准备打仗, the coeds spent their free time making clothing for soldiers in a specially outfitted knitting room in Renfroe大厅. 作为对战争的进一步贡献, 霍华德承担了尽可能多地自给自足的任务, 买母鸡来供应鸡蛋,买一头骡子来种植三英亩的蔬菜作物.

Shelburne returned to Howard in January 1918 in order to help raise funds for the college's endowment. 筹款进行得很顺利, 也没有什么理由认为,谢伯恩不会在战争结束后回来,带领学院进一步迅猛发展. 但, 就像霍华德的其他牧师总统一样, Shelburne decided in March 1918 that his calling to ministry was greater than his calling to educational administration. 他辞去总统职位,服务于加斯登第一浸礼会教堂. 霍华德学院面临着动荡不安的几年.

查尔斯·B. 威廉姆斯

查尔斯·威廉姆斯的照片

1919-1921

霍华德学院在1917到1921年间因为欧洲的战争而非常不稳定. J. M. 舍伯恩从霍华德的总统职位上请假去服兵役. 1918年3月他辞职后,霍华德大学的受托人任命约翰C. 道森将担任代理总统. 但道森也很快被批准休假到美国服务.S. 法国陆军教育公司. 数学教授的ophilus R. 伊格尔斯随后担任代理主席(或代理主席),直到受托人在1919年仲夏最终确定了一个新的主席.

在纸上, 至少, North Carolina native 查尔斯·Bray 威廉姆斯 seems to have been an ideal choice for the presidency of Howard College. 据他女儿说, 夏洛特·威廉姆斯赤身, 威廉斯是“一个有六个孩子的农民家庭的葡京app下载”," 谁 lashed his 拉丁 book to the h和les of a plow so he could study while working. By 1919, 威廉斯作为牧师和受人尊敬的葡京app下载以及希腊文和新约的资深教授而闻名. 他翻译的希腊文新约, 在他服侍霍华德的时候, 是一部有影响力和重要的作品吗, 并一直在印刷中. 但是,尽管如此,威廉姆斯政府还是突然而痛苦地结束了.

像J. M. Shelburne, 威廉姆斯 sought to link Howard's future to Birmingham's, 和 his downfall was in leading a campaign to relocate the college closer to the heart of the city. 就像十九世纪八十年代, 支持搬迁霍华德大学的人质疑,进一步投资于一个孤立和老化的设施被认为限制了大学的校园是否有价值. 校友反对搬迁, accurately pointing out that the move from Marion had bitterly divided state Baptists for decades. 但教职员工和校董都支持搬迁, 1920年夏末,威廉姆斯宣布校董事会已经在伍德隆选定并购买了120英亩土地作为新校园的选项, 并停止了东湖校区的投资.

就在搬迁的争论进行的如火如荼的时候, 威廉姆斯 led a new endowment 和 debt reduction campaign, 在短时间内成功地还清了霍华德所有未偿还的债务, 将捐赠增加到400美元,增加了20%的教员工资. 不到一个月后,威廉姆斯宣布再次竞选. 他提议再筹集50万美元,以创建近100万美元的捐赠基金.

这, 他说, 会允许学校搬迁吗, 建立一所医院和一个医学研究部, 和 create "one of the finest technological departments, 包括一流的工程学院, 在南方.“如果说他对霍华德未来的设想是不切实际的,那么他对伯明翰的设想则是不可思议的. "的 city needs an engineering school 和 other technical schools 和 it needs a great medical school,”他说.

校友反对搬迁, 再加上变幻莫测的经济, foiled the president's plans for Howard 和 Birmingham. 1921年5月初, 威廉姆斯宣布他将离开一段时间,然后就再也没有回到办公室. 的re is more than a trace of bitterness in his letter of resignation, published in 伯明翰新闻 他离开几周后:

而, 它似乎是不可能的, 面对可怕的金融萧条, to raise in the near future the necessary one half million dollars for the moving of Howard College to Woodlawn Heights, according to re解决方案s adopted by the Board of 受托人; whereas, 我坚信我对大霍华德的崇高理想, 为成千上万的年轻人的教育,为了上帝的荣耀, 几乎不能, 如果在所有, be realized at East Lake; whereas, 我相信在这种情况下, 我不能最好地侍奉神, 或者对人类最有帮助, or do my full duty to my family; 的refore, I do hereby tender to the Board of 受托人 my resignation as president of Howard College to take effect June 1, 1921.

这封信也为威廉姆斯的突然离开提供了一个诱人的线索. “作为一项真正的运动,我向比赛的获胜者——东湖少数民族——脱帽致敬,”威廉姆斯写道. James F. 小Sulzby., 本系列的研究和写作都基于他, 指出,“霍华德在东湖的朋友们得出结论,移走他的医生会更容易一些. 与其拒绝将霍华德学院从他们的社区中移除,还不如将威廉姆斯从总统职位上撤下.尚不清楚他们是如何做到的. 苏兹比只是写道,“个人的不愉快和含沙射影导致了他的死亡. 威廉姆斯在学院的任期变得复杂和无效.威廉斯的妻子在此期间生病了(不久就去世了), 这可能是促使他离开霍华德的原因之一.

无论威廉姆斯离开的原因是什么,这似乎都没有影响到他的职业生涯. 离开霍华德大学后,他加入了美世大学, 然后联合大学, 在奖学金和服务浸信会教派方面创造了卓越的记录.

查尔斯·布雷·威廉姆斯给霍华德带来了宗教复兴的精神, presided over record enrollments 和 admission to the Southern Association of Colleges 和 Secondary 学校, raised large sums of cash for the endowment 和 found majority support for a bold institutional vision. 这还不够, 但威廉姆斯最终为他的愿景中最具争议的方面赢得了辩护. Construction of Howard College's new campus began in 1953, the year after his death.

在这段动荡的战争时期之后, caretaker presidents 和 bitter internal struggles, 霍华德求助于一位了解这所大学的人, 了解总统职位, 也许最重要的是, enjoyed the support of the entire Howard community.

约翰·C. 道森

约翰·道森的照片

1921-1931

约翰·C. 道森是阿拉巴马州亨茨维尔人,但在那里只住了很短时间. 他的父亲去世后,也就是道森出生一年后,他的家人搬到了肯塔基州. 道森回到阿拉巴马州,成为一名教育工作者, 首先是在斯科茨伯勒, 从1903年开始, 在霍华德大学.

到1921年,作为现代语言学教授,道森为霍华德做出了显著的贡献, 学院院长兼代理院长. 他也曾多次请假——先是监督驻法美军的教育,然后在哥伦比亚大学(Columbia University)完成博士学位.

查尔斯·布雷·威廉姆斯在1921年突然辞职, 在大学里留下不愉快的感情和破裂的关系. Needing first 和 foremost to heal the wounds of recent years 和 create a stable administration, 霍华德的受托人转而求助于受人信任和喜爱的道森, 谁获得了他的博士学位.D. the day after his predecessor's official resignation.

作为回报,道森提供了10年的稳定领导和稳定的机构增长. 但是威廉姆斯和J. M. 舍伯恩一直在努力, 对霍华德未来的大胆设想, 道森似乎专注于微小的进步.

One of 道森's most innovative 和 farsighted policies allowed faculty to take leaves of absence, 在半薪, to complete doctorates 和 thus boost the college's reputation as they added value to their teaching. 道森还主持了科学大楼的扩建, 体育馆, residence hall for women 和 a state-of-the-art 运动 field; a surge in postwar enrollment (a 40 percent increase in 1921); a boom in academic societies; expansion of the 深红色的; a first attempt at creating a pharmacy program; 和 creation of an academic journal dedicated to the scholarship of Howard faculty.

道森最长久的政策是禁止跳舞,理由是“不利于提高课堂作业效率”,而且“阿拉巴马浸信会反对跳舞”.“这一政策, 它存在了60多年, 这是一场全面打击(或复兴)的一部分吗, 这取决于个人的观点). 道森还要求学生在集会上背诵和背诵一篇特别的学生祈祷文. 尽管伯明翰被官方认为是学院的朋友, 道森禁止不必要的探访. "A student 谁 keeps continually running to town can be assured of a private interview," he warned.

就像之前和之后的总统夫人一样, 道森的妻子, 弗莱彻史汀生, was an active participant in the life of the college. 事实上,从1921年到1927年去世,她一直是霍华德的社会总监. 在她死后的几年里,约翰·C. 道森决定为学院服务近三十年, 包括10年的总统任期, 是足够长的时间.

A summer abroad in 1930 reminded the president of his love for teaching romance languages 和 literature. 同年秋天,他宣布辞职,并于1931年2月离开办公室,开始了欧洲之旅,随后加入阿拉巴马大学,担任浪漫语言系系主任. 令霍华德社区大为惊讶的是, 这次旅行也是道森和阿维斯·马歇尔的蜜月旅行, 霍华德的新图书管理员.

在1921 - 1931年间, 霍华德大学增加了大约1人,000名学生和超过两倍的捐赠, 但也积累了100美元,000年的债务. 随着大萧条的到来, 道森辞职是希望霍华德能找到一个有热情和智慧的新校长来拯救学校. Howard found such a president by the end of the decade, but not before suffering a bitter 和 chaotic period that brought charges of communist conspiracy at the college 和 an aggressive campaign by students, 教师和校友取消总统.

托马斯·V. 尼尔

托马斯·尼尔的照片

1932-1939

托马斯·V. 尼尔 accepted the presidency of Howard College at an especially precarious moment. 前任总统, 考虑到日益严重的经济萧条, 他意识到霍华德需要新的想法和专业知识才能渡过危机. 尼尔似乎是那份简报的最佳人选.

出生于西乔治亚州, 尼尔在农场长大,靠打工上学, 在霍华德学院当洗衣工来支付学费. After graduating from Howard in 1902 尼尔 attended seminary 和 spent over two decades in 德州 as a pastor 和 educator. He had already proved his fundraising 和 institutional growth expertise as an administrator at Oklahoma Baptist University when Howard called him home to his Alma Mater.

尼尔's first year as president was consumed by simply saving the college from the effects of the depression. 他进行了大规模的招募工作,并下令停止建造他继承的多功能露天剧场, 意识到学校对这笔钱有更迫切的用途, 物质和能量. 在这一危机时期,教师们只是无偿工作. 1933年底, 霍华德已经削减了足够多的开支,以至于公司正在慢慢摆脱财政危机.

尼尔不仅救了霍华德, 他实际上扩大了学校的课程和师资,并显著改善了学校的设施. Federal aid increased enrollment 和 尼尔 even managed to raise faculty salaries. 不要忘记学生, 他显然拒绝执行前任的严格的反对跳舞的政策,还为每个霍华德姐妹会建了一座新房子.

即使在大萧条最黑暗的日子里,尼尔也对霍华德的未来充满信心. "It is doubtful whether any college in the state or immediate region has weathered the economic storm as well as Howard,他在1934年说. Howard, he predicted, would soon enjoy an unprecedented "broadening 和 deepening of academic work."

尼尔的乐观是有道理的. 霍华德在20世纪50年代中期似乎非常健康,1936年 深红色的 他宣称,“快乐的日子又来了。.它提供了这方面的证据, 在其他方面, the observation that the faculty had bought more new cars in that year than in the entire previous decade.

到1936年,霍华德大学已经成为SBC体系中的第二大学院,甚至有望很快还清大部分债务. 显然,尼尔证明了受托人对他拯救学校的信任是正确的. 然而,仅仅在混乱的几年之后,尼尔就被迫下台.

看来尼尔的成功也是他的厄运. 他在大学事务上积累了很大的权力, 和 although his decisions often served the college well, his unilateral decision-making alienated many students, 教师和校友. 甚至有些理事也不敢反对尼尔.

1938年,当尼尔就学生活动费用的控制权与学生发生冲突时,他的管理风格引发了公众的紧张情绪. 受到越来越多学生异议的威胁, 尼尔在, suspending some students 谁 criticized the college. 这导致了与教职工的冲突,在大萧条最严重的年代,教职工们为维持学院的运转做出了巨大的牺牲.

When students called for the creation of a scholarship to benefit the president of the student body, 将从学生学费中筹集资金, 尼尔反对这个想法,理由是它“违反了学院的原则”.尼尔最近曾为要求部长级学生支付学费而斗争(这是在遵循全额奖学金的传统之后),他对奖学金提议的反对将学生的意见推到了临界点. 据称,教职员敦促学生“逃课”...并在学生群体中编织一个关于学生感受的民意调查.学生会委员会认为尼尔应该辞职.

A Howard professor temporarily calmed the students, 但尼尔通过开除总统的学生群体来推动这个问题. 教师们成功地再次介入,这一次是代表学生. 眼前的危机已经避免了, but the students soon voted to create the scholarship for the student body president, 尽管尼尔反对. 学生们再次要求尼尔辞职, 校友和教师现在也加入了这个运动, 正式要求受托人撤销总统.

尼尔 responded to the increasing pressure by charging that communists were behind the movement against him. 校董会没有发现共产主义渗透学院的证据, 但还是拒绝了要求尼尔辞职的要求. 尼尔赢了这场战役,但输了这场战争.

1939年1月,尼尔意识到自己的地位已经站不住脚,于是宣布辞职. 他完成了学年,于6月底离开了学校, a few months after the president of Howard's alumni association claimed that 尼尔 和 a trustee had conspired to fire, 以节省成本为借口, some of the faculty 谁 had dared to oppose the president. 更糟糕的是,霍华德的认证资格现在岌岌可危. It was an unfortunate end for a president 谁 had shepherded the college through the grave dangers of the depression.

Those dangers continued to threaten Howard 和 were compounded by another world war, 但一位经历过战争和国家政治的老手将带领学院走过20年令人印象深刻的增长和文化变革.

哈维尔克. 戴维斯

哈维尔·戴维斯的照片

1939-1958

It seems especially fitting that in 1939 哈维尔克oodwin "Major" 戴维斯 took on leadership of a college named for Christian prison reformer John Howard. 作为阿拉巴马州的司法部长, 戴维斯帮助揭露并终结了该州的罪犯租赁制度, which amounted to a government-sponsored slave trade. 为国家服务, 第一次世界大战期间,他在战场上服役, 戴维斯证明了自己是一个有天赋的领导者. 在尼尔总统的文化崩溃之后, 戴维斯看上去一定是个安全可靠的人. 但 谁 could have foreseen just how well he would lead Howard College through the dramatic changes to come?

具有讽刺意味的是, 第二次世界大战, 戴维斯面临的最大挑战, made possible his two great accomplishments on behalf of Howard--helping the college thrive in wartime 和 relocate to a campus large enough to accommodate the tenacious, 几十年前的伟大霍华德愿景.

霍华德的财政状况似乎正在从大萧条的深渊中稳步改善. 在著名商人弗兰克·帕克·萨姆福德的大力指导下, 新当选校董会主席, the college continued to chip away at its debt 和 maintain financial stability. 1940年的新生人数比前一年增加了10%, 和 a Howard centennial fundraising campaign aimed to eliminate all of Howard's debt 和 add campus facilities to accommodate the increasing number of students. 但就在学院准备庆祝建校之际,战争再次威胁到它的生存. 甚至在美国之前.S. entered the war against the Axis, enrollment slumped 和 some faculty departed for military service.

有了年轻人和教员在战场上,学院怎么能生存下去呢? 戴维斯 answered that question not by trying to remove the college from the path of the mobilizing national war machine, but by making the college a valuable part of its mechanism. 第一个, Howard agreed to host a Civilian Pilot 培训 Program 谁se cadets would study alongside the college's other students. 海军航空公司的一个项目紧随其后,1943年,海军授予霍华德一份合同,让他主持一个大型V-12训练项目. 这给学校带来了生存所需的资金和男学生.

事实上,这所大学欣欣向荣. So valuable was the V-12 contract that in 1944 Howard enjoyed its best fiscal health in a decade. By 1945, 霍华德还清了债务, 这不仅要感谢V-12计划,还要感谢国家浸信会的持续支持. 这个海军项目于1945年秋季结束, 和 although Howard had to return some of the V-12 funds, 戴维斯 set aside much of the remaining wartime windfall in the hope that it would allow Howard to relocate.

自从1887年霍华德学院从马里恩迁往东湖以来,就一直在公开讨论迁往东湖的问题. 尽管搬迁的主张通常会与校友发生冲突, it was clear by the 1940's that Howard must either have more room to grow or simply stop growing. 的 problems of the East Lake campus became even more acute as Howard reaped the rewards of the GI Bill, 这给了归来的退伍军人继续受中断教育的机会,或者负担他们原本无法负担的教育, 在财务上.

In early 1947 Howard made official overtures for l和 in Birmingham's Lane Park 和 Roebuck communities, 但到了夏天,他们在湖滨大道(Lakeshore Drive)买了225英亩地. 的 idea was to not only relocate Howard to the new site, 同时也搬迁并合并贾德森学院. 要阻止霍华德的搬迁几乎是不可能的, 但对贾德森搬迁的反对阻止了贾德森-霍华德学院的建立.

尽管《葡京app下载》的影响在20世纪50年代早期有所减弱,战争再次让学院感到不安, Howard pressed ahead with relocation to Lakeshore Drive. 在1957年搬迁时,计划中的设施只有少数完工, 但学院独特的建筑统一性已经显而易见. 戴维斯拒绝了为这些建筑选择现代设计的建议, 他更喜欢佐治亚殖民风格,这成为了新校园的主要吸引力.

戴维斯 saw the college through its first year on the new campus, then stepped aside. 他在战时拯救了这所大学, 给予它充分发挥其潜力的方法,并扩大其学术项目,而不放弃其独特的文化使命. 由于这些原因,他的总统任期, 是迄今为止最长的, was the only one to leave an impression of completion, 尽管新校区基本不完整. 为了实现戴维斯对校园的全面愿景,霍华德求助于莱斯利·S. 莱特.

莱斯利史蒂芬•莱特

莱斯利·赖特的照片

1958-1983

Howard College president 哈维尔克oodwin 戴维斯 led the college through its second major relocation, 在服役近20年后,于1958年卸任. 他设想的格鲁吉亚殖民时期的校园很快就会出现, 但此时此刻,这里是一片泥土的海洋,只有几栋建筑. 新任总统莱斯利·S. 莱特, 会帮助实现戴维斯的愿景吗, 领导大学地位的道路,监督自大学成为男女同校以来最重要的文化变化.

莱特, 伯明翰的原生, completed his education in Kentucky before returning to 阿拉巴马州 as a teacher 和 coach before WWII. 在担任美国总统之后.S. 南太平洋的海军情报官员, 莱特 worked for the federal government 和 eventually served as an assistant to U.S. 参议员李斯特山. 那时,赖特被叫去找霍华德, 他在阿拉巴马浸信会基金会服务了好几年.

作为一个私人隔离机构, 葡京会官方app下载在某种程度上与20世纪50年代和60年代早期的伯明翰和民权运动事件绝缘. 但是萨姆福德大学的教职工和学生中反对种族隔离的核心力量日益壮大, 和 by the late 1960's changing laws made racist policies untenable even for private universities.

莱特拒绝集成, 但葡京app下载的白人政策威胁到了联邦学生资助和机构认证. 坎伯兰法学院, 面临着最紧迫的危险, 终于录取了萨姆福德的第一个黑人学生, 奥黛丽拉蒂摩尔加斯顿, in 1967. 这扇门在坎伯兰被打开后, 赖特没能关闭它,也没能阻止这所大学成为一个整体.

Although the desegregation of Samford proceeded peacefully, 莱特 often battled 教师和学生 over other university policies 和 the extent of presidential powers. 尽管有这样的内讧, 莱特 still managed to serve Samford longer than any president before or since. 从1983年退休到1997年去世,他还担任大学校长.

在他担任总裁的25年里,莱斯利·S. 赖特帮助实现了几十年来的“伟大霍华德”愿景.他的继任者托马斯·E. 微观经济, 继续沿着同样的路线前进, nurturing an ever-exp和ing campus 和 academic program largely made possible by the gifts of the Beeson family.

托马斯·E. 微观经济

托马斯微观经济的照片

1983-2006

出生于特雷豪特, 印第安纳州, 在阿什塔布拉长大, 俄亥俄州, 微观经济 was one of seven siblings 和 the oldest brother to answer a calling other than full-time ministry. Although in his youth he was so involved in church activities that high school classmates jokingly called him "Reverend," Tom 微观经济 did not dream of a career in the pulpit. 事实上,他对新闻事业的前景更感兴趣. 十几岁时就在当地报社工作, 科尔特报道了周五晚上的足球比赛, mixing with players 和 coaches on the sidelines but never guessing that someday he would have ultimate responsibility of entire college 运动 programs.

It was not until attending Georgetown College that 微观经济 began to glimpse how he might combine his faith, 他对教育的热爱和他家庭的服务传统. 在乔治敦大学校长Robert L. Mills, 微观经济 found an aptitude for 和 interest in the behind-the-scenes work of higher education. 从乔治敦大学毕业后,科特斯获得了M.A. 和Ph值.D. 他毕业于印第安纳大学,在1974年成为温盖特学院(Wingate College)的校长之前,他曾担任乔治城学院(Georgetown College)的执行副校长.

After becoming president of 葡京会官方app下载 in 1983, 科尔特斯领导了大学历史上最戏剧性的发展时期. 葡京app下载现在是南部地区排名前五的大学之一, 定期发布记录注册, 提供了丰富的国际学习经验,并在创新教学和本科生研究方面享有越来越高的声誉. 微观经济还领导了许多大型建筑项目,并获得了超过2亿美元的捐赠.

除了担任萨姆福德的总统, 微观经济 served as chairman of the Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges 和 学校 (SACS), 总统的囊, president of the American Association of 总统 of Independent Colleges 和 Universities 和 president of 阿拉巴马州 Citizens for Constitutional Reform.

安德鲁·威斯特摩兰

安德鲁·威斯特摩兰的照片

2006-2021

Dr. 安德鲁·威斯特摩兰 led the university to embrace a vision to enrich 和 exp和 its service to students 和 further inspire their desire to meet the needs of the world. 为了推进这一愿景,大学致力于一个具有挑战性的战略计划,有四个优先事项:强调学生的成功, 增强葡京app下载的社区, 扩展葡京app下载的到达, 确保资金实力. 永远佛德, 6年, 投入3亿美元资金支持该计划, is the largest undertaking of its kind in 葡京会官方app下载’s 179-year history. Funding from the campaign will help to ensure that Samford continues to prepare 和 send dedicated, 有思想有道德的人走向世界.

在他被葡京app下载理事会选为主席之前, 他曾担任瓦希塔浸会大学校长八年, 和, 在此之前, 担任行政工作人员19年以上,担任过各种职务, 包括发展副总裁和执行副总裁.

威斯特摩兰德毕业于瓦希塔, 1979年获得政治学学士学位. He earned a master's 学位 in political science from the University of Arkansas at Fayetteville, 和 a doctorate in higher education administration from the University of Arkansas at Little Rock. 他是阿肯色州贝茨维尔地区的本地人,1975年毕业于贝茨维尔高中. 他的妻子是. Jeanna Westmorel和, 谁 served as professor of education 和 dean of Ouachita's School of Education. 韦斯特莫兰德夫妇有一个女儿,莱利,毕业于萨姆福德.

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贝克一. 泰勒

贝克一. 泰勒

2021年至今

贝克一. 泰勒 came to 葡京会官方app下载 after serving as the 18th president of Whitworth University in Spokane, 华盛顿, 自2010年以来. 在此任命之前, 泰勒 served as dean 和 professor of economics for Samford’s Brock School of 业务 (2005-2010), 和 associate dean for research 和 faculty development for Baylor University’s Hankamer School of 业务 (1997-2005).

泰勒's tenure at Whitworth was highlighted by a renewed emphasis on community involvement; efforts to enhance academic programs 和 quality; the building of new campus infrastructure to facilitate the university's academic, 运动, 和 student life programs; the creation of newly endowed faculty positions 和 centers; leading Whitworth's largest-ever comprehensive fundraising campaign; 和 an emphasis on overall institutional effectiveness.

在贝勒大学获得经济学和金融学学士学位后, 泰勒 was employed as an analyst for Andersen Consulting (now Accenture) in Houston, 德州. 他继续攻读硕士学位.S. 和Ph值.D. 普渡大学的经济学教授. After returning to the Baylor faculty, 泰勒 was named the first holder of the W.H. 史密斯经济学教授. In 2002, 他被哈佛大学任命为访问葡京app下载,在哈佛大学教育研究生院居住了一年.

作为葡京app下载布鲁克商学院的院长, 泰勒 led the rapid transformation of the business school, 包括重新命名以纪念哈里·B. 布洛克,小.他是Compass Bank的创始人. 泰勒 led the Brock School of 业务 to establish eight new academic programs, 还有学校新的荣誉项目. 的 school's entrepreneurship program was recognized in 2010 as the nation's top emerging program by the U.S. 小型企业协会 & 创业. In an effort to build bridges between students 和 the Birmingham business community, 泰勒建立了萨姆福德商业网络, 还有一个由45名亚洲顶级商业领袖组成的顾问委员会.

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